Kristian Torbensen, Mikkel Kongsfelt, Kyoko Shimizu, Emil B. Pedersen, Troels Skrydstrup, Steen U. Pedersen, and Kim Daasbjerg
A simple, direct, and versatile scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) approach for local carboxylation of multilayered graphene on nickel is demonstrated, in which carbon dioxide serves as the carboxylation agent under reductive conditions in N,N-dimethylformamide. The use of SECM gives control over both the spatial dimensions and the degree of carboxylation. While the pattern size, in general, is governed by the dimension of the SECM tip, the degree of modification, expressed as the surface coverage of carboxylate groups introduced at the graphene substrate, is found to be controlled by the electrolysis time. This is supported by electrochemical measurements, two-dimensional X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy mapping, and He ion microscopy. Surprisingly, intercalation of the supporting electrolyte in the multilayered graphene on nickel occurs to a relatively small extent when compared to corresponding results obtained in previously described carboxylations of this kind of multilayered graphene.